Bolestivé uzliny

19.8.2012 , Július Jakubík

bolestive-uzliny.jpg - kopie
bolestive-uzliny.jpg - kopie
Bolestivé uzliny jsou příznakem, který by neměl být nikdy podceněn. Uzliny jsou sídlem imunitních buněk, a k jejich zvětšení dochází při zánětu, kdy se imunitní buňky množí a bojují proti infekci. Takto zduřené uzliny bolí. Uzliny mohou být zvětšeny i při nádorech, v této situaci jsou ale většinou nebolestivé...

Bolestivé uzliny

Všichni to známe. Zvětšené bolestivé uzliny na krku, které nás bolí a často nám nedovolí vůbec pohnout hlavou. Pojďme se tedy podívat, co za tímto nepříjemným příznakem stojí. Mízní uzliny lze považovat za jakési filtry jimi protékající mízy. Nachází se zde buňky obranného systému, které lemují místa, kterými proplouvá lymfa. Lymfa je tekutina, která do mízních uzlin připlouvá z tkání a nese v sobě jak samotné bakterie či viry, ale i speciální buňky imunitního systému, které na svém povrchu nesou informaci o tom, s jakou hrozbou se v tkáních setkaly. V mízní uzlině dochází ke styku zdejších imunitních buněk s buňkami v lymfě. Imunitní buňky se začnou v uzlině množit a vyzrávat tak, aby byly schopné zničit mikroby, o jejichž přítomnosti byly informovány. Poté takto vyzbrojené putují do dané tkáně, kde se účastní obranné reakce těla. Tyto překotné děje vedou ke stavu, který nazýváme jako bolestivé uzliny.

Příčiny bolestivých uzlin

Díky tomu, že se v dané uzlině imunitní buňky množí a tudíž se mnohonásobně zvyšuje jejich počet, uzlina se zvětšuje. Mohou se zde množit naopak i bakterie a viry, díky čemuž dochází v uzlině a přilehlé oblasti ke vzniku zánětu, což se projevuje otokem a také bolestí uzliny. Kromě toho se v uzlině mohou množit ještě nádorové buňky, což také způsobuje jejich zvětšení, nikoliv však bolestivost. Z výše uvedeného textu je potřeba si odnést alespoň jediné – zvětšené uzliny v jakémkoliv místě, které nebolí a nemizí po 2 týdnech, by měly být vždy co nejrychleji prohlédnuty lékařem, aby se vyloučila možnost nádorového bujení, eventuálně se nádorové bujení zachytilo včas. Mízní uzliny se nacházejí všude po těle, typicky se shlukují do skupin. Zvětšené a bolestivé uzliny lze potom rozdělit na místní a celkové, kdy jsou zvětšené a bolestivé uzliny na více vzdálených místech těla.

Bolestivé uzliny a jejich konkrétní příklady

  • U některých onemocnění jsou zduřelé uzliny v typických oblastech na těle. Například u zarděnek jsou zduřelé bolestivé uzliny za ušním boltcem a v týlní krajině. Proti zarděnkám se u nás děti očkují, proto se vyskytuje průměrně 8 případů ročně. Zarděnky jsou typické především svou červenou vyrážkou po celém těle.
  • U zánětu hrdla – angíny - jsou typicky zduřelé a bolestivé uzliny za čelistním úhlem. Uzliny v oblasti ucha se zvětšují při zánětech zvukovodu, např. při zánětech středního ucha u dětí.
  • Podčelistní uzliny a uzliny na krku nalézáme zduřelé u záškrtu – difterie. Ke zduření mízních uzlin se zde přidává silný otok okolních měkkých tkání až do toho stupně, že krk má obvod stejný jako hlava. Proti záškrtu se v ČR také povinně očkuje, proto se onemocnění téměř nevyskytuje.
  • V oblasti klíční kosti můžeme nalézt zvětšené a bolestivé uzliny při zánětech v hrudníku a mezihrudí.
  • Dobře hmatatelné jsou ještě uzliny v podpaží, které mohou být bolestivě zvětšené při zánětech prsní žlázy. Při nádoru prsní žlázy jsou v podpaží zvětšené, ale nemusí být bolestivé.
  • Dobře hmatatelné jsou uzliny v tříslu, do kterých míří míza z dolních končetin a také některých pánevních oblastí, tudíž záněty z těchto míst mohou způsobit zvětšení i zánět tříselných mízních uzlin (např. pohlavně přenosné choroby apod.).
  • Naproti tomu existují i onemocnění, u kterých jsou uzliny zvětšené povšechně. Je tomu tak například u infekční mononukleózy, HIV infekce, u toxoplazmózy apod.
  • Nebolestivé zvětšení více uzlin budí podezření z rakoviny imunitních buněk – leukemie a lymfomy.

Bolestivé uzliny a poučení na závěr

Rizikovými faktory pro získání bolestivých uzlin jsou především kontakt s nemocným člověkem, který přenáší určitá onemocnění, která se mezi jinými projevují právě bolestí mízních uzlin. Daná onemocnění je potřeba léčit, aby se předešlo jakýmkoliv následkům a také šíření do okolí.

 

Trpíte-li Vy nebo někdo ve vašem okolí bolestí uzlin ať už povšechně, anebo jen místně, neváhejte a obraťte se na svého lékaře, aby určil příčinu a mohl ji zavčas léčit. Na svého lékaře se zejména obraťte, máte-li Vy či někdo ve Vašem okolí zvětšené uzliny, které jsou nebolestivé, mohou být tuhé, nepohyblivé proti okolí.

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